This article appears in the February 8, 2008 issue of Executive Intelligence Review.
Hooray for the Global Crisis!
by Leonid Ivashov
This article by Mr. Ivashov, General-Colonel, and President of the Academy of Geopolitical Problems, was published in Russian, on the website of the Strategic Culture Foundation (fondsk.ru), on Jan. 26, 2008. The translation into English for EIR is by Rachel Douglas. Subheads have been added. See also Lyndon LaRouche's reply.
Mankind is watching with alarm, as crisis hits the American and world economies.
The G. Bush Administration is seeking a way out of the crisis through war. The President of the U.S.A. has just visited the Mideast, where he attempted to put together an anti-Iran alliance. According to reports received Jan. 25, the members of the UN Security Council have prepared a new draft resolution on Iran. The new version essentially unties the hands of the U.S. President and the Israel lobby in the American Congress for war against the Islamic Republic of Iran.
But, will a new war save the world economy and the world's reserve currency?
The present model of the world financial and economic system is unipolar, with the ruling pole being the country that controls the world currency. And that nation, in turn, is controlled by the owners of major private monetary fortunes.
That is the U.S.A., which functions merely as the instrument of global power and money. The Bilderberger Society's formula says that power is merely a commodity, although it is the most valuable one. Therefore, the wealthiest people should have power.
The United States, despite the seeming democracy of its Presidential elections, is under the power of finance capital. Mao Zedong's aphorism, "Power grows out of the barrel of a gun," sounds different today: "Power grows out of the dollar." If the dollar collapses, however, the financier international and the U.S.A. will be compelled to give up their dream of world rule. And without that dream, America will hardly even be able to survive as a unified nation, because the Americans have no worldview, other than the utopia of world rule.
Patrick J. Buchanan, former advisor to Presidents Nixon and Reagan, and candidate for the Republican Party Presidential nomination in 1992 and 1996, forecast in his book The Death of the West (Russian edition, 2003) that the U.S.A. would split into three independent nations by the year 2025: one African-American, one Hispanic, and one Anglo-Saxon.
Anticipation of a global catastrophe can also be found in the works of F. Fukuyama, E. Wallerstein, S. Huntington, and other well-known researchers.
Of course, such a course of events will be a catastrophe for current generations of Americans, just as the disintegration of the U.S.S.R. was a catastrophe for the majority of its inhabitants. What about the rest of the world?
The collapse of the U.S.A. and the dollar will cause suffering for all countries that are linked to the world currency and integrated into the global market system. But, aren't those peoples suffering from American effrontery already? Aren't nations losing their sovereignty, while the power elites in most of them serve the interests of global capital, rather than the needs of their own population?
Moreover, the very survival of modern civilization is becoming Problem #1 for mankind. Economists, ecologists, demographers, physicists, medical professionals, and anti-globalists warn of this.
Thus, perhaps, we ought not to be sorry about the current crisis of the world economy, but rather welcome its collapse and take the necessary preemptive measures?
The Meaning of Life
But, first we must understand the essence of today's world order. We must think again about the meaning of life, the place of Earth's civilization in the Universe, and our relationship to God. We must remember Plato's conclusion, that the civilization of Atlantis perished precisely because it stopped communicating with Heaven, and sank into a life of luxury and pleasure.
Russian Academicians G.I. Shipov and A.Ye. Akimov have scientifically proven not only the existence of a physical vacuum and of torsion fields, but also the dependency of natural and cosmic phenomena (including catastrophic ones) on the thoughts and worldview principles of mankind, and the state of consciousness of masses of people. A. Einstein also approached an understanding of how the state of affairs on the planet depends on human consciousness.
The world system that was constructed after the disintegration of the U.S.S.R. is a hierarchy that presumes one financially powerful country at its head, while the philosophy of life it imposes is strictly tied to the cult of money and pleasure. It is the first time in the history of mankind, that the economy has become so immoral.
The philosophy of monetarism is based, as the Russian scholar V.G. Sokolenko put it, on "the idea of a union of money and law, or the so-called capitalist absolute ... against which all the great ideas of the epoch of historical Romanticism, and the social revolutions aimed at improving the organization of society, ran aground. By the 20th Century, rationalistic philosophy and liberalism had brought capital to the point of absolute power over the world." (V.G. Sokolenko, Capitalism's Global Rule, Moscow, 2005).
Philosophers, poets, musicians, or explorers of distant worlds are not the ones who set the pitch for people's lives today, but rather financiers and businessmen. Material gain, money, luxury, and power have become the fundamental codes for the great mass of people.
The physical-spiritual dualism of the human being is reduced, more and more, to its "body" component alone. Such a human being, however, is neither of use to Nature, nor acceptable to God. Therefore, he is fated to disappear. For man was created in the image and likeness of God, while his physical existence is sustained by his connection with the plant and animal world, and non-living nature.
The contemporary model of being, based on the ideology of monetarism, ought to be replaced by cognitive, spiritual being. Therein lies the salvation of human civilization. This can be done, only by passing through the furnace of a crisis of the world financial and economic system, wherein the crisis is a means to deprive the global oligarchy of its real power.
Lyndon LaRouche, who has warned repeatedly about the coming collapse, has issued this call: "Rather than continuing the foolish attempts to stimulate the corpse, the United States Government must use its sovereign powers to put its own financial system through bankruptcy proceedings, setting a precedent and providing the context in which other nations can act."
Unfortunately, there are no sovereign governments in the U.S.A., Russia, or Europe. To a limited extent, they exist in China, India, Iran, Japan, and other Eastern countries, and in several Latin American nations. The rest are controlled by the world financial oligarchy.
Three hundred and fifty-eight family clans of billionaires have a combined income that exceeds the combined income of 45% of the Earth's population, in dollar terms. The quintessence of this monstrous inequality is the mafia-style oligarchical syndicate, presided over by the wealthiest people on the planet. They determine how processes unfold in the world, while they themselves remain in the shadows, out of the public eye. They also control the bulk of the planet's resources, finance huge illegal armies and NGOs, and have developed networks of influence within the governments and parliaments of most of the countries in the world.
That is the pinnacle of the unipolar world. This financial oligarchy is incapable, however, of directing world development. It knows how to make money, seize power, and hold that power for the sake of generating additional profit. Nothing short of the collapse of the dollar pyramid will shake that power.
What may be the consequences of a dollar catastrophe?
Strategic Culture Foundation
September 11, 2001: A Global Provocation
Five years that have passed since September 11, 2001, the date when unknown terrorists (declared to be Islamists) delivered an air blow on the twin towers of the U.S. World Trade Center, have produced a slew of new information about the attack, so that the official version of those developments provided by the U.S. government is hardly taken seriously by more than a few people. The conclusions made in relation to the September 11 events were advantageous for the U.S. ruling circles and financial oligarchy behind them, which they themselves may well have organised, are becoming more and more convincing.
The world’s experience shows that terrorism is bred on the aggravations of social, racial, national and other contradictions, on the crush of social relations and the triumph of evil, the decadence of morals and the triumph of cynicism and nihilism as well as if there is an explosive growth of vice and crime. The processes of globalisation are indeed the fertile soil for all these phenomena. They are characterised by revamping the geopolitical map of the world, re-distribution of the planet’s resources, the removal of national frontiers, the break-up of the system of international law, the destruction of original cultures and impoverishment of spiritual and moral life.
At present we have every reason to speak about a systemic crisis of the human civilisation. The absence of new philosophic ideas, the moral crisis, the deformed world outlook, the yearning for the super-wealth and super-authority and cruelty - all lead the way for the human kind towards degradations, and possibly, a catastrophe.
Then there is expansion of the battle for natural resources. The striving of the major powers, primarily the United States as well as trans-nationals to subordinate to their interest economic systems of other states while ensuring themselves control of the most important sources of raw hydrocarbons destabilise the world, aggravating the general state of anxiety, absence of clear vision of life’s prospects and development of many nations and states.
The break-up of the multi-polar world and the disrupted balance of forces have led to the destruction of the system of international security, norms of inter-state relations, and devaluation of the role played by the UN and its Security Council.
The United States and NATO have appropriated the right to determine the fate of other states and to get away with acts of aggression, substituting its legislation for the chartered UN principles. Nothing else but the aggression against the Union Republic of Yugoslavia and against Iraq, the connivance to Israel’s aggressive acts in Lebanon, threats to Syria, Iran and other countries have released enormous energy of resistance, revenge and extremism. This energy has rejuvenated the potential of terror, boomeranging to the West.
Analyses of international processes developing after September 11,2001 provide convincing proof that terrorism facilitates implementation of the goals of the global dominance and subordination of national states to the interests of the world’s oligarchy. Terrorism is not an independent subject of global policies but rather a means of establishing a new world order in the hands of a single global management centre. The chief subject of international terror is what is known as the global elite. None other than it is attempting to organise terror against other countries, including Russia.
The main strikes delivered by the global elite are directed at the traditional historical mode of life of different peoples, the national state arrangement of human civilisation and their national identity.
The use of terror by state and public structures in the present-day conditions is a way of achieving political goals by way of intimidating, bringing psychological pressure to bear upon civilians, the suppression of the political will of different states and the creation of conditions for manipulation of huge human masses.
International terrorism is a tool for waging wars of a new non-traditional type, and in association with the media it becomes one of the subsystems to manage global processes. It is exactly this symbiosis of the media and terror that creates conditions for abrupt turns of the world policies.
What was the significance of the September 11, 2001 terrorist act along these lines? It turned the movement of the global history into a new channel, drawing the final line under the final destruction of the Yalta-Potsdam system of the global order, unleashing the hands of the United States, Great Britain and Israel in their activities directed against other countries in passing over the UN Charter and international agreements, stimulating the growth of the scope of acts of terror.
International terrorism also has another side. Terror has become a radical tool of national liberation struggle, separatism, national and religious dissent as well as a means of competition struggle in politics and economics.
In Afghanistan, Kosovo, Central Asia, the Middle East and the Caucasus terrorism ensures drug trafficking by destabilising the situation along the routes of drug trafficking.
In the conditions of a systemic crisis of international relations terror has taken the shape of an original lethal culture, taking a place of its own in the present-day life. It has stormed its way into European welfare states, it continues torturing Russia and shakes the Middle East and Eastern Asia. It makes the world community take for granted the illegal interference into the internal affairs of different states by force and the destruction of the system of international security. Terror creates the cult of force, making policies pursued by different states and the conduct of governments and population subordinate to it. And the most terrible thing: as we are now facing a new round of warfare for the re-distribution of global resources and control over the world’s key regions terrorism has much in store for it.
The new U.S. National Security Strategy approved by U.S. Congress in 2006 states that the goal of U.S. policies is “ensuring a safe access to the world’s key regions, strategic communications and global resources”, while a means of securing this kind of access can include preventive strikes against any country on the globe. This strategy tends to grow into a preventive strikes doctrine, or nuclear terrorism, which in turn could lead to a wide use (including retaliation) of different types of toxic agents and weapons of mass destruction. The side that has been attacked would – nothing loath – make its own selection of means of retaliation.
A provocation relying on a terrorist act is becoming an efficient means of achieving political goals on the global, regional or local scales. In its time the provocation in the settlement of Rachik in Serbia’s Kosovo served as a pretext for a NATO aggression that led to a break-up of the Union Republic of Yugoslavia and Kosovo’s separation from Serbia. That was a regional scale provocation. Another regional scale provocation was made to vindicate Israel’s aggression against Lebanon in July 2006.
Explosions in London’s Underground, disturbances in Paris in 2005 and 2006 are local level provocations that affected the policies and the public opinion in Great Britain and France.
There are behind most acts of terror practical goals set by influential political forces, trans-national corporations and criminal groups. Almost every act of terror (except those of the national liberation character) is a provocation.
Explosions of the Sunni and Shia mosques in Iraq were also provocations, as well as the capture and murder of members of Russia’s diplomatic mission in Baghdad.
Provocative acts of terror have accompanied mankind throughout its history. Nothing else but provocative acts of terror helped find pretext for unleashing both world wars.
Events of September 11, 2001 were a provocation of the global scale. In this case it is possible to speak about carrying out a global-scale operation that was instrumental in solving several global problems, including:
1. Giving the financial oligarchy and the United States an informal right to resort to military force against any state in the world.
2. Changing the role of the UN Security Council, which is getting more and more traits of being an encourager of the aggressor and an ally of a new global dictatorship.
3. Further strengthening of the U.S. monopoly for the access to resources in actually any part of the world.
4. Carrying out provocation operations is always characterised by the presence of three indispensable elements, including the presence of a contractor, organiser headquarters and the perpetuator. As for the September 11 provocation Al Qaeda could neither act as a contractor nor the headquarters (otherwise what is the need for the CIA, FBI and NSA?). It does not have colossal resources required to order an act of such scale. It also lacks in experience even at the level of effecting regional level operations. All the acts of terror Al Qaeda was really responsible for were acts of a rather primitive nature. It does not have a well-developed agents’ network in the United States that would make it possible to rapidly penetrate dozens of state and private organisations responsible for air transport and systems ensuring their security. Its members could be ordinary performers of an act of terror, but that’s another matter.
As I see it, the entity to order that epochal provocation could be the world’s financial oligarchy aiming to finally establish “the world’s fascist dictatorship of banks” (a Lyndon LaRouche’s phrase) and to take control of the planet’s much-needed hydrocarbon resources. Ensuring of the world dominance to last for a very long time had long been planned. The capture of such a stronghold as Afghanistan, the invasion of Iraq and possibly of Iran that own enormous resources of oil and natural gas and installing military control over the chief routes of hydrocarbon transit were all direct aftermath of September 11,2001 events.
The organiser headquarters of the act of terror perpetuated in New York five years ago could be the generously financed “consortium” of people from the special services, secret Masonic organisations and people responsible for air traffic. Lavishly paid-for media, lawyers and politicians did the information and legal support of the operation. The selection of perpetuators was made according to the principle of ethnic belonging to the nations that own significant oil-and gas resource.
The September 11 operation, whose main goals were achieved, was a success.
The notion of “international terrorism” was introduced in the routine socio-political vocabulary, and the world was led to believe that that was the chief threat to mankind.
A typical image of a new threat has been created: an Islamist from one of the oil-rich nations.
The basic structure of international law of the bipolar world era was finally destroyed, and the notions of aggression, state terror and the right of self-defence were totally distorted.
The right of a nation to resist an aggression, subversive activities of foreign special services and defend its national interests was totally crushed.
Techniques to shelter principal characters interested in the establishment of the world’s dictatorship and global management were installed.
But still, the global war is not yet over. It was only provoked by the September 11 acts of terror. It is just an overture to future developments.
Strategic Culture Foundation
The Summit of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) which convened in Bishkek in August, 2007, stimulated studies dedicated to the organization’s development potential. I think that it is time to back the SCO activities by an adequate modern theory.
Initially, the SCO was established to resolve border disputes between China and four former Soviet Republics. It transpired subsequently that the organization had a much more ranging potential. The idea of creating a substantially stronger formation on the basis of the «Shanghai five» emerged in the Russian Foreign and Defense Ministries in 1998. At that time, I was the head of the Defense Ministry International Military Cooperation Department which worked on the issue jointly with Russian Deputy Foreign Minister G. Karasin. Our endeavors were supported by E. Primakov. Unfortunately, later the project was frozen.
The key ideas underlying the SCO ideology are:
- The unipolar world order is unstable, perilous for mankind, and prone to dictatorship based on military power;
- The global dominance of the liberal market model can result in a global economic imbalance, an intensification of the struggle over natural resources, and the mass extinction due to famine, deceases, and armed conflicts;
- The philosophy of the prosperity limited to the «golden billion» is unacceptable to mankind as it destroys harmony between humans and nature and causes civilizational clashes.
Correspondingly, our proposals were:
- To establish a second pole of global power with the life philosophy and attitude to environment different from those in the West, a pole assigning greater priority to spiritual and moral values, to collectivist tendencies;
- To harmonize the relations between countries and civilizations;
- To create a security system based on a balance of powers and potentials.
The military ministries initiated forming the alliance of the «six» and, subsequently, the SCO when they proposed to consider security issues in a broader context at a meeting in Astana, Kazakhstan, in 2000. NATO's aggressive politics, the tendency of the US to seek military-technological superiority over others countries, attempts to undermine the missile Defense Treaty and SALT, etc. were identified as the commonly faced threats in a joint statement of the defense ministers of the «five». The economic, informational, and ideological security issues were also examined.
Contrary to S. Huntington's concept of the allegedly inevitable clash of civilizations, the conclusion drawn in the SCO framework was that harmonized interactions between civilizations and their mutual assistance were possible. Already during the consultations, the Russian side proposed to invite India and Iran to the new formation. The Chinese side suggested getting Pakistan involved. Later all the partners agreed to Mongolia's membership in the SCO.
Already at this phase, the contours of an alliance of five non-Western civilizations – Russian, Chinese, Muslim, Hindu, and Buddhist – began to materialize. Their common features are asserting the priority of collectivism over individualism as well as rejecting the unipolar world structure and the dominance of the monetarist ideology.
Designing the security configuration for the would-be SCO, we proceeded from the concept of the balance of powers both within the organization itself and in East Asia on the whole. This aspect is of key importance to Russia, the Central Asian countries, and the relations in the China-India-Pakistan triangle.
The SCO responsibility and interests zone was demarcated for the first time at the anniversary summit of the organization in 2006. It was stated that the SCO had the potential to play an independent role in Eurasia. I think that it was the SCO potential in the security sphere that made it possible to forge strong links between the Shanghai Cooperation Organization and the EU, the OSCE, the League of the Arab States, and the ASEAN, as well as to complement its own potential by interacting with the CIS, the CIS Collective Security Treaty (CST) organization, and the Eurasian Economic Community. Within years from now, the SCO has a chance to evolve into a basis of the collective security system in Eurasia and to influence the global security climate.
Even at present, the SCO with its «6+4» format (6 member-countries and 4 countries with the observer status) has enormous economic and human resources. The territories of the SCO countries comprise 3/5 of Eurasia, their populations make ¼ of the global population or the majority of it if the populations of the observer countries are taken into account. The SCO responsibility zone is extremely rich in natural resources, and its countries have the world's fastest growing economies.
At the same time, the SCO countries face such problems as the recurrent poverty as well as ethnic and religious tensions. In many cases, the philosophy of the SCO elites is focused on achieving high rates of the economic growth rather than those of the economic development. Such orientation emphasizing higher GDP and per capita incomes does not necessarily lead to the development of the countries and peoples, and oftentimes cannot improve the populations' living standards in what concerns culture, science, education, environment, etc.
The SCO was founded as «an organization of a new type» (E. Primakov), its informal prime objectives being to transform the modern world, to make it better and fairer, to arrest the perilous tendencies in the global development.
The SCO can and must have a security system of its own, distinct from NATO or any other military bloc. The same is true of the need to espouse a distinct model of the economic development and to maintain a particular SCO informational space.
A lot is already being done in this respect. The SCO institutional development is in full swing, public organizations in its framework are emerging, and the decision-making process at all levels is growing more specific. Meetings of the leaders, security council secretaries, defense, foreign affairs, and energy ministers of the SCO member-countries are institutionalized and take place on a regular basis. The SCO Business Council has a meaningful agenda. Public healthcare, social support, telecommunications, and transportation projects are implemented. A public coordination council in support of the SCO is established, and the corresponding Russian language internet resources are available.
In the future, the architecture of the SCO international activities will comprise the following interactions
- with regional and global formations;
- bilateral interactions between the SCO and non-SCO countries, between the SCO as a whole and non-SCO countries.
- interactions driven by specific interests.
The SCO has a number of features untypical for other regional integration formations. Its model differs from those of the EU and the ASEAN in both the territorial scale and the spectrum of the tasks it addresses. The SCO is supposed to be a special world without a clearly defined boundary, a world spanning the entire global space. The quadrangle of the new global entity – Brazil, Russia, China, and India – is already taking shape. A triangle capable to consolidate the branches of Islam – Iran, the Saudi Arabia, and Turkey – is also becoming a reality. The above and certain other formations are related to the SCO.
It is a shortcoming of the SCO that it has no ideological foundation such as an inter-civilizational integration theory including the concept and the algorithms of structuring the organization’s enormous space. So far, most of the progress within the SCO is made in the economic and security spheres. Unfortunately, there are still no integration theorists in the SCO countries such as Jacques Maunet and Barry Buzan in the EU.
A special remark must be made on Russia's place and role in the SCO. Russia is both a multi-ethnic country and the kernel of the Orthodox Christian civilization. Under its former name – as the USSR – it has already been one of the two global poles. Russia has a rich experience of socialist development and is gaining the experience of the capitalist one.
In 1938, German philosopher W. Schubart wrote in his Europe and the Soul of the East that it is not Europeans but Russians who have the mindset by which humans can justify their eternal predestination. Russians are guided by the absolute, by the universal feeling, the Messianic soul... When it comes to the main issues of life, Europeans should regard Russians as an example, not vice versa. If Europeans seek to return to the eternal goals of mankind, they should adopt the Russian-Eastern perception of the world.
This is how the heartland expands to the south-east.
Krach : Ivashov ouvre un dialogue avec LaRouche
Dans un article intitulé " Hourra pour la crise globale ", le général russe Leonid Ivashov, président de l’Académie des problèmes géopolitiques, aborde la crise qui frappe l’économie américaine et mondiale. Publié le 26 janvier sur le site de la Fondation de la culture stratégique (fondsk.ru), l’article a été repris sur le site MiK. Dans les deux versions, Ivashov cite l’avertissement de Lyndon LaRouche à propos de l’hyperinflation et son appel à mettre le système financier en redressement judiciaire. Sur MiK, le général, dont les analyses retiennent toujours l’attention de la communauté militaire russe et sont suivies attentivement par les stratèges étrangers, qualifie LaRouche d’" Américain remarquable ", précisant qu’en mai dernier, l’économiste l’avait personnellement prévenu de l’explosion financière globale imminente.
Il est vrai que les analyses de Lyndon LaRouche, traduits en russe, sont largement diffusés et répercutés dans toute la Fédération. C’est le cas de ses propos sur le danger d’hyperinflation, tenus le 22 janvier, aussitôt après la décision de la Fed de baisser ses taux directeurs, qui ont été repris, entre autres, sur Anti-glob.ru, le site de la résistance russe à la mondialisation, et sur Strateger.net, un site ukrainien. L’analyse de LaRouche apporte un contrepoids à l’opinion répandue en Russie, où trop de responsables ont l’illusion que leur pays pourrait, d’une manière ou d’une autre, échapper à la débâcle si le dollar chutait et toute l’économie américaine avec lui.
Ce n’est pas le cas du général Ivashov. Ancien directeur du département international du ministère russe de la Défense, il compte parmi les plus perspicaces et les plus sérieux des analystes russes. Dans son article de fin janvier, après avoir évoqué la crise financière et économique, mais aussi éminemment culturelle à laquelle le monde fait face, il écrit : "Lyndon LaRouche, qui n’a cessé de mettre en garde contre l’effondrement imminent, a lancé cet appel : ‘Au lieu de perpétuer les absurdes tentatives de stimuler un cadavre, le gouvernement des Etats-Unis doit utiliser ses pouvoirs souverains pour mettre son propre système financier en redressement judiciaire, créant ainsi un précédent et fournissant le contexte dans lequel d’autres nations pourront agir.’ "
Le général Ivashov se montre cependant assez pessimiste quant à la perspective que les Etats-Unis suivent effectivement les conseils de LaRouche, qui incarne de toute évidence l’Amérique qu’il aimerait voir émerger. Il envisage deux scénarios, l’un qu’il appelle négatif (le chaos global) et l’autre positif, en cas d’effondrement du dollar. Le positif inclut la remise à l’honneur du rôle de l’Etat, le déclin de la civilisation occidentale (" euro-américaine ") et l’émergence d’un nouveau pôle de pouvoir, basé sur l’Organisation de coopération de Shanghai.
Réagissant à l’article du général Ivashov, mais visant un public international beaucoup plus large, Lyndon LaRouche revient sur l’importance - et aussi les moyens - d’éviter une telle catastrophe. Premièrement, il note que l’erreur de jugement la plus courante aujourd’hui parmi les institutions dirigeantes consiste à analyser les événements du point de vue mécaniste et statistique d’un monde cartésien, alors qu’il faut les situer dans un processus dynamique de type " riemannien ", de manière à voir comment effectuer le changement voulu. Il explique, à nouveau, le rôle unique de la civilisation européenne dans l’histoire, notamment celui de la science, malgré toutes ses perversions, ainsi que l’importance des Etats-Unis en tant que première République, même si sa véritable tradition a été si souvent trahie.
A la vision pessimiste du général Ivashov, LaRouche contrepose des mesures concrètes qui permettraient d’éviter ce scénario du pire que de nombreux Russes et Européens considèrent comme inévitable. Il faut instaurer un système global de coopération entre Etats-nations souverains, qui devrait être initié par quatre grandes puissances, les Etats-Unis, la Russie, la Chine et l’Inde, pour déboucher sur un accord monétaire. En outre, il faut établir un nouveau système international à taux de change fixes et générer une masse de crédit public, sur 25 ou 50 ans, destiné à de grands projets de développement bien définis, à la fois nationaux et internationaux. Il propose de nommer ces accords " les objectifs communs de l’humanité ". " Seule une alliance de ce type, écrit LaRouche, reposant sur des objectifs économiques communs de progrès et de sécurité, nous permettrait de réorganiser de manière ordonnée le système monétaro-financier actuel. Cette approche de la sécurité internationale est la seule viable. "
Repenser le sens de la vie
Le général Ivashov situe le débat sur la crise financière à un niveau philosophique et spirituel fort peu habituel dans le monde militaire et stratégique. Il semble refléter à sa manière les idées développées par Lyndon LaRouche sur l’homme et l’univers, qui s’appuient à leur tour sur la distinction entre biosphère et noosphère établie par le scientifique russe Vernadski. La nature de la crise est telle que les gens cherchent des réponses de fond. C’est pourquoi il nous semble utile de citer ces propos du général Ivashov.
" La survie même de la civilisation moderne devient le problème numéro un pour l’humanité. Economistes, écologistes, démographes, physiciens, professionnels de la santé et anti-mondialistes tirent la sonnette d’alarme.
" Nous devons donc comprendre l’essence de l’ordre mondial actuel. Nous devons repenser au sens de la vie, à la place de la civilisation terrestre dans l’univers et à notre relation à Dieu. Nous devons nous rappeler la conclusion de Platon, selon laquelle la civilisation de l’Atlantide périt précisément parce qu’elle avait cessé de communiquer avec le ciel et sombra dans une vie de luxure et de plaisir.
" Les académiciens russes GI Chipov et Aye Akimov ont établi scientifiquement, non seulement l’existence d’un vide physique et de champs de torsion, mais aussi la manière dont des phénomènes naturels et cosmiques (y compris les phénomènes catastrophiques) dépendent des réflexions et des principes de l’humanité, et de l’état de conscience des populations. Albert Einstein se tourna également vers une compréhension de la manière dont l’état des affaires sur la planète dépend de la conscience humaine. (...)
" Aujourd’hui, ce ne sont pas les philosophes, poètes, musiciens ou explorateurs de mondes lointains qui donnent le ton à la vie des gens, mais plutôt les financiers et les hommes d’affaires. Le gain matériel, l’argent, le luxe et le pouvoir sont devenus les codes fondamentaux de la majorité des gens.
" Le dualisme physique-spirituel de l’être humain se réduit, de plus en plus, à sa seule composante "corps". Un tel être humain, cependant, n’est ni utile à la nature, ni acceptable pour Dieu. Par conséquent, il est condamné à disparaître. Car l’homme a été créé à l’image et à la ressemblance de Dieu, alors que son existence physique est assurée par ses liens avec le monde végétal et animal et avec la nature inorganique.
" Le modèle d’être contemporain, basé sur l’idéologie du monétarisme, doit être remplacé par un être spirituel cognitif. Ceci ne peut être fait qu’en passant par le fourneau d’une crise du système financier et économique mondial, dans laquelle la crise elle-même sert à priver l’oligarchie mondiale de son pouvoir. "
Strategic Culture Foundation
The Global Geopolitical Revolution
The past 15 years saw revolutionary changes in the development of the human civilisation. The world’s geopolitical structure has dramatically changed. The outcomes of WWII led to the formation on the planet of two super-civilisations.
One of these is based upon the traditional world outlook, the primacy of spiritual and moral values and priority of an individual’s personal development along with its organic linkage with collective social structures. The R& D and economic development of the states belonging to this civilisation pattern were oriented at the attainment of socially significant state-related achievements. Individual enrichment and simply material welfare were regarded as something secondary. And individual’s welfare in such a society depended on the collective welfare, that of the society and the state. The foundations of this type of super-civilisation were the USSR, the PRC and the European Socialist countries. To a degree, the nations liberated from the colonial yoke were close to it (Africa, Asia and Latin America). The moral code of this super-civilisation was conscience and justice.
The other super-civilisation was the antipode of the first one. The basis of its world outlook was individualism and greediness: saving up money, profit, extension of the area where money acted and the increase of the influence of money on all the sides of social life. Alongside that, the concentration of the financial resources within the framework of the states, corporations and physical entities promoted the technological progress, raising the living standards, comfort and the entertainment industry. Elevated culture and fundamental science were lagging behind and the realm of the spiritual was commercialised.
These two super-civilisation systems, taking the shape of two geopolitical blocs were in a stringently complex, and not only the ideological, standoff. At the same time the acute competition of the two global opponents was the primer of the global historic development given to the presence of the market of ideas and concepts, where the sides tried to outdo one another.
Following WWII, in parallel to the two super-civilisations (Capitalism and Socialism) the “third world” was also formed. It combined both the ideas of Socialism and Capitalist economic techniques along with the traditional power system. This tri-polar system of the world order had future and was strategically stable (regardless of the nuclear standoff), allowing whole nations and states to choose their own development path in the conditions of relative security.
The crush of the USSR and other Socialist countries attributed the contours of unipolarity to the development of the world. The West proclaimed itself the winner and the European-U.S. elite began to regard themselves as the global elite, and the thinking of the financial and political Western circles as that of the thinking of the whole world.
The system of international relations and the principles of international security that were formed in the epoch of the geopolitical balance of forces began to destruct being replaced by the standards of power and supremacy. The global power began to be transformed to transnational capital. The age-long adoration of “the golden calf”, the mammon, was nearing its end, the global obeisance of the human community to the power of money on the global scope, and turning the human being from a subject of history into an object of pecuniary slavery. Mother Nature also became a means of earning profits. The human being began to be degraded both morally and intellectually.
Therefore, due to the revolutionary changes of he past 15-20 years the role of a human being in the present-day world and the structure of the international community have changed. The evident spiritual and moral blind alley became visible in the development of the mankind’s civilisation. Exploitation of natural resources has grown, and whole nations (including Russians and other peoples of the Russian Federation) climbed from the plough, the machine tool and the book to wholesale mercantilism, the hammering up of fortunes by hook or by crook, including amoral ways, and international norms began to be dictated by the financial Internationale and big transnationals.
The states as subjects of international law and order are now losing their role and their attributes of sovereignty, whereas the mineral resources they own are declared “the property of mankind” and are bought or taken by force by stronger and richer states.
In essence, a global economic war has been unleashed against the background of the construction of the global empire of capital. This war uses the military force, contagious combat viruses, financial crises, arrangement of starvation and poverty, bankruptcy of whole states and debt suffocation.
Mass media controlled by the global financial centres have become an aggressive and efficient weapon. Using them, the situation in different parts of the world is being formed, with public opinion focused in the required direction and human conscience is being broken down.
Counter to the United Nations and other internationally acknowledged institutions new significance is being attributed to the global structures of supranational power (the Beldberberg club, the G7, the Davos Forum, etc), the power components (CU.S. army, NATO and international military forces) as well as the system of jails and secret operations within the framework of the empire of capital.
The states that put up resistance to being included in the global empire of the capital and trying to pursue their own independent development policies are destroyed by the use of U.S. and NATO force and are dismembered into small quasi-states (Yugoslavia and Iraq), with hotbeds of conflict and chaos created in strategically significant regions and inter-national and inter-confessionals wars are being provoked (Kosovo, Palestine, Lebanon and Iraq).
The formation of the new global elite based on the pseudo-religious “chosen people” is the principal moment, whereas all the rest should become auxiliary, and the remaining ones to be destroyed. Heads of state and government are to be appointed by the global centre just imitating democratic procedures. They are becoming the authorised bodies of global management.
Quite naturally, an empire cannot stand the presence of two or more ideologies. That is why traditional religions, value guides, norms of national living and orientations are being destroyed and discredited, being replaced by a standardised surrogates.
These are the most common outlines of the coming epoch of the mondialism (globalism).
At the same time, the attempts to build on this planet a global empire of capital based on the financial fundamentalism are unreal and extremely dangerous for the whole of mankind as a civilisation.
The implementation of the global impersonal power of money exhibits the epoch’s main contradiction – the antagonism between the unrestricted concentration of wealth and Mother Nature. The habitat of a human being cannot stand its excessive exploitation, avenging by unbelievably frequent disasters: fires, hurricanes, flooding and earthquakes. Simultaneously, the mankind is made to believe that there are “too many” people in the world. For example, a report published by the U.S. National Intelligence Council has it that some 3 billion people will by 2015 be regarded as redundant, as allegedly there will not be enough resources to go round to sustain them.
The second biggest contradiction is the antagonism between the Atlantic and other civilisations of the world. According to S.Huntington, the world has entered the epoch of the “civilisations clash” which is just at its beginning. Events in Iraq, Afghanistan, Kosovo and - to some degree –in France are primarily the episodes of the war waged by Islam, the Orthodox Church against Atlantism, Judaic Protestantism, totalitarian globalism, the new “body of political authority rather than the fight for territorial integrity, autonomy or the withdrawal of foreign troops from the territories of the countries involved. And the principal theatre of this war is the realm of the spiritual.
The greedy egotistic civilisation (that negates God and spiritual wisdom) cannot win this war. So, the project of a unipolar world cannot be implemented. The condition of the chief power tool the only “superpower” can rely on, the American dollar that is not backed materially is extremely unstable, so the zone of its influence is shrinking. U.S. policies of supporting its economy by financial robbery and total subordination of national banks to American financial institutions is collapsing due to the galloping growth of the U.S. debt to the rest of the world. The global financial system is on the brink of a crush.
Finance and economy-related tensions within the Atlantic community are also aggravating, reflected by the relations between the United States and China, Russia, Latin America and Europe. Inside the United States the strategy of installing the police regime is being implemented. Living standards area declining. In the conditions of the absence of the USSR acting as the global competitor, the world’s financial elite is unwilling to make the life of 300 million Americans decent.
Thus we can become witnessed of the growth of civilisation contradictions in the United States itself. G.Patrick Buchanan could have been right about his prediction in his book “The Death of the West” of a break-up of the United States by 2015, with the follow-up creation of three independent states: Afro-American, Latin American and Anglo Saxon.
The third global contradiction has to do with natural resources. The striving to give money the global supremacy has caused the omni-present unbridled growth of consumption of natural resources, primarily hydrocarbons. A slow but steady depletion of their stocks is giving rise to the aggravation of the struggle for control over them and the routes of their transport. The growth of the virtual dollar supply on the threshold of its inevitable devaluation makes owners of billions of dollars use them to obtain assets backed by natural resources, or in other words, to further rape the environment.
The global elite is incapable to win the battle for oil and natural gas relying on petrodollars and military might, but it can aggravate the military strategic situation and unleash new wars, as it would never give up claiming its power over the whole world. With this in mind the United States is building up an unprecedented military might, implementing the mindless idea of the global anti-missile shield, the doctrine of prevention strikes, including nuclear strikes, in an attempt to set its sights on the whole planet Earth. It is insistently implementing the formula of the global dominance based on the control of the key regions of the world, strategic communications and resources of the planet.
As for NATO, from a military alliance with a comparatively narrow zone of responsibility it has turned into an aggressive tool for attaining dominance over the world. This alliance no longer defends the interests of European states and Canada; it rather contradicts them, drawing Europe into confrontation with Russia and the Islamic world. And there is no saying that the “good old Europe” is prepared to take on this role without a murmur.
Increasing the military potential of the United States and NATO, the forces of the global empire of capital are striving to attain the decisive supremacy over all other civilisations, fixing their military technological breakaway regarding other states.
Speaking globally, we mark the confrontation of the two principles of ensuring military security – the balance of forces and the overpowering supremacy. On the one hand, Russia, China, India, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Finland and the Islamic countries, Latin America stick to the principles of the balance of forces (or sufficient defence) both at the global and regional levels. On the other, the military technological supremacy has become the state ideology for the United States, taking the shape of the world outlook for the Western financial and political elite.
At the same time events in Iraq and Afghanistan indicate that the virtually absolute military and technological supremacy of the coalition of Western nations does not guarantee them either a victory or strategic stability.
Relations between the U.S. and Russia, as well as those between Russia and Europe play an important role in the area of global security and strategic stability. What is seen nowadays is the aggravation of these relations with voicing conclusions about the return to the times of the “cold war”.
What is happening in reality? Russia and the United States are the geopolitical competitors, two different worlds, two power centres and two foundations for putting in place of different civilisations. The strong Russia, and the USSR before it is a serious stumbling block for the building of the global empire of the capital and instalment of unified standards in the development of states and nations of the world.
It was no accident when Britain’s H.MacKinder, one of the fathers of Western geopolitics, fixed a sign on Russia (the Soviet Union) reading “the geographic axis of history”, or “the continental heart of the world”, the Heartland. He concluded that without putting this Heartland under control, putting Eurasia under control would be impossible.
In the 1990s, the Yeltsin time, a regime of “external management» was installed in Russia. The United States has attained the military supremacy over Russia, excluding the sphere of the strategic nuclear arms. But the situation in the strategic sphere was devoloping in such a way that due to an unequal reduction and degradation of the Russian strategic nuclear forces the U.S. had a serious advantage. The U.S. withdrawal from the 1972 ABM Treaty along with a large-scale deployment of combat systems based in space, the air, the land and the sea brought about the threat of undermining the Russian missile and nuclear potential and the complete destruction of the foundations of the global strategic stability.
However, the class of oligarchs that has with time became a part of the common system together with the ethno-criminal groups, intending to deprive the peoples living in Russia of the hope of a return to the ideals of conscience, truth and justice began to sense the danger from outside, coming from a much stronger financial predator that aimed at both the Russian territory and the resources, but also at the capitals of oligarchs and the officialdom, and their control of Russia. At this point it was absolutely necessary to begin thinking of the security of the state.
In the past several years Russia’s military and political management has been trying to alter the threatening tendency in order to save the potential of a reciprocal or advance nuclear strike. The issue is not the restoration of a nuclear parity within the framework of a new arms race. What is being realised is the principle of retaining the capacity to do irreparable harm in retaliation to an adversary rather than a preventive strike, which would be a measure of containment of a potential aggressor.
Russia inherited the ideology of retaliation–advance strike from the USSR. Russia is still retaining the guaranteed real possibility created by the Soviet people to deliver to the United States or the territories its allies occupy – should they venture to go into a nuclear missile adventure – several megatonnes of nuclear warheads.
The understanding of the fact that the security of the Russian state and international security can be ensured by achieving balance of international forces is getting back.
Experts have aid attention to the summit of the Shanghai Organisation of Cooperation (SOC) and joint manoeuvres of the armed forces of that organisation that took place in August of 2007 in Russia.
On the one hand the activities of the SOС can be characterised as the process of formation of a second world’s pole that will be principally different from the pole of Atlantism. Involved in this process are the states that represent five global civivlisations. On the other, the SOC manoeuvres demonstrated their preparedness to defend their sovereignty and their systems of values, which radically changes the geopolitical situation..
Undoubtedly this is not at all to the liking of the adepts of the totalitarian power of “the only superpower”. Questionless, Russia is getting to the fore to become the leader of the world’s second pole. What reasons do we have to think so?
To begin with, Russia has no claims to global hegemony, capture of territories, resources and the conquest of other nations. It is self-sufficient, even though not totally independent. The Russian oligarchic capital is in no position to claim other countries’ resources, being aware that the global financial centres can “drown” it overnight.
Second, Russia has a geopolitical potential incomparable with that of any other nation. First and foremost, this is the favourable (unique) location of this country on the planet that binds together whole continents, oceans and civilisations. That also includes its vast territory with diverse climatic conditions, uniquely rich with natural resources. Then it is also - on the whole – high intellectual level of Russia’s population.
Third, the Russian civilisation is open to all other world’s civilisations and compatible with most of them according to the scale of culture and moral values and philosophy of living.
And last but not the least, Russia has its missile nuclear potential comparable to that of the claimers for the global dominance.
So, the control other nations may dream of having over the Heartland is out of the question. The Russian society has retained the foundations of its statehood potential, which, given the will, wisdom and honour of the elite at power can become the basis of success of the global significance.
This is exactly why Russia is now experiencing the mighty pressure, threats and the consolidated Western interference in its internal affairs.
We can expect complications of the situation inside Russia and around it, especially during the period of the parliamentary and presidential elections in 2007 – 2008 and immediately after the replacement of the Kremlin’s master. The secret forces of the global empire are already skilful enough in the art of destabilisation of both whole countries and continents, making whole nations oppose each other and launch the mechanisms of terror.
The situation is aggravated by the absence in the Russian state management system of a central body of a system analysis, strategic planning and working out of strategic solutions. Figuratively speaking, Russia does not have a General Headquarters (this is not to mean the Headquarters of the RF Armed Forces) and the Staff of the Commander-in-Chief. That is why there is generally lack of observance of solutions and unheard-of corruption that are in existence against the background of the ugly management of socio-economic, regional and ethno-demographic processes.
The present-day Russia is a fragile vessel that can remain whole only in strong and caring hands. Some sort of an illusion of stability in this country does exist mainly due to the shared criminal responsibility of managers and those managed by them in their common neglect of law. Any outward action on a so fragile “vessel” could ruin it.
But we are willing to hope that the Russian society and state have learnt the lessons of the past. Moreover the circle of friends of Russia in the world is getting wider little by little. With God’s help we could sail through the strait between Scylla and Charybdis.
The main thing is to prevent our oligarchic capital from amalgamating with the forces of the global financial empire against the peoples of Russia.
The article has been made on the basis of a lecture the President of the Academy of Geopolitical problems, General-Colonel Leonid Ivashov delivered to foreign military attaches in Moscow in August of 2007.
"En ce monde étrange où nous sommes, dire que le blanc est blanc et le noir noir est une audace qui se paie parfois d'une balle dans la nuque, et presque toujours
d'un silence hostile de l'opinion publique et des intellectuels qui la gouvernent."
Marcel De Corte
"Seigneur, ayez pitié de nous. (bis)
Jésus-Christ, ayez pitié de nous. (bis)
Seigneur, ayez pitié de nous. (bis)
Jésus-Christ, exaucez-nous. (bis)
Père céleste qui êtes Dieu, ayez pitié de nous.
Fils, Rédempteur du monde, qui êtes Dieu, ayez pitié de nous.
Esprit Saint, qui êtes Dieu, ayez pitié de nous.
Trinité Sainte, qui êtes un seul Dieu, ayez pitié de nous.
Sainte Marie, priez pour nous.
Sainte Mère de Dieu, priez pour nous.
Sainte Vierge des vierges, priez pour nous.
Mère du Christ, priez pour nous.
Mère de la divine grâce, priez pour nous.
Mère de l'Eglise, priez pour nous.
Mère très pure, priez pour nous.
Mère très chaste, priez pour nous.
Mère toujours Vierge, priez pour nous.
Mère sans tache, priez pour nous.
Mère aimable, priez pour nous.
Mère admirable, priez pour nous.
Mère du bon conseil, priez pour nous.
Mère de Créateur, priez pour nous.
Mère du Sauveur, priez pour nous.
Vierge très prudente, priez pour nous.
Vierge vénérable, priez pour nous.
Vierge digne de louange, priez pour nous.
Vierge puissante, priez pour nous.
Vierge clémente, priez pour nous.
Vierge fidèle, priez pour nous.
Miroir de justice, priez pour nous.
Trône de la sagesse, priez pour nous.
Cause de notre joie, priez pour nous.
Vase spirituel, priez pour nous.
Vase d'honneur, priez pour nous.
Vase insigne de la dévotion, priez pour nous.
Rose mystique, priez pour nous.
Tour de David, priez pour nous.
Tour d'ivoire, priez pour nous.
Maison d'or, priez pour nous.
Arche d'alliance, priez pour nous.
Porte du ciel, priez pour nous.
Étoile du matin, priez pour nous.
Salut des infirmes, priez pour nous.
Refuge des pécheurs, priez pour nous.
Consolatrice des affligés, priez pour nous.
Secours des chrétiens, priez pour nous.
Reine des Anges, priez pour nous.
Reine des Patriarches, priez pour nous.
Reine des Prophètes, priez pour nous.
Reine des Apôtres, priez pour nous.
Reine des Martyrs, priez pour nous.
Reine des Confesseurs, priez pour nous.
Reine des Vierges, priez pour nous.
Reine de tous les Saints, priez pour nous.
Reine conçue sans le péché originel, priez pour nous.
Reine élevée aux Cieux, priez pour nous.
Reine du très Saint Rosaire, priez pour nous.
Reine de la paix, priez pour nous.
Agneau de Dieu, qui effacez les péchés du monde, pardonnez-nous, Seigneur.
Agneau de Dieu, qui effacez les péchés du monde, exaucez-nous, Seigneur.
Agneau de Dieu, qui effacez les péchés du monde, ayez pitié de nous, Seigneur.
V. Priez pour nous, Sainte Mère de Dieu.R.Afin que nous devenions dignes des promesses de Jésus-Christ.
Seigneur, daignez nous accorder, à nous vos serviteurs, de jouir toujours de la santé de l'âme et du corps ; et par la glorieuse intercession de la bienheureuse Marie toujours vierge, délivrez-nous des tristesses de la vie présente, et donnez-nous d'avoir part aux joies éternelles.
Par Jésus-Christ Notre Seigneur.
Les statistiques sont l’instrument de celui qui renonce à comprendre pour manipuler.
L’intelligence est une race à laquelle n’appartiennent pas toutes les intelligences.
L’intelligence ne consiste pas à manier des idées intelligentes, mais à manier intelligemment n’importe quelle idée.
La ferveur du culte que le démocrate rend à l’humanité n’a d’égale que la froideur par laquelle il manifeste son manque de respect pour l’individu. Le réactionnaire, lui, dédaigne l’homme, sans trouver aucun individu méprisable.
L’absence de vie contemplative fait de la vie active d’une société un grouillement de rats pestilentiels.
Plus seront complexes les fonctions assumées par l’Etat, plus le sort du citoyen dépendra de fonctionnaires chaque fois plus subalternes.
L’unique régime politique qui n’incline pas spontanément au despotisme, c’est la féodalité.
Rien n’attendrit plus le bourgeois que le révolutionnaire d’un pays étranger.
Le christianisme dépasse toute éthique, parce qu’il ne demande pas d’être sans péchés, mais avides de pardon.
L’indépendance intellectuelle est aujourd’hui inaccessible à qui choisit une profession libérale. La société moderne déprave l’intelligence qui se donne à elle, fût-ce en location.
L’historien authentique est un érudit qui écoute la rumeur de l’histoire avec l’imagination d’un enfant.
Nicolas Gomez Davila (Escolios a un texto implicito) Les Horreurs de la démocratie. Trad. Michel Bibard. Anatolia-Editions du Rocher (2003)
La phrase doit émerger de son habillement verbal, pulpeuse, limpide et fraîche, comme une adolescente qui se met nue.
La ferveur d'une âme noble peut se tromper d'objet sans se tromper de direction.
Sans latin ni grec, il est possible d'éduquer les mouvements de l'intelligence, mais pas l'intelligence elle-même.
Comment maintenir une tradition ? - En n'en parlant pas.
Il n'est pas de vérité que nous n'ayons le droit d'étouffer si elle doit blesser quelqu'un que nous aimons.
Il n'est jamais trop tard pour rien de vraiment important.
Le degré de civilisation d'une société se mesure au nombre de gestes usuels de politesse dans la vie quotidienne.
On est venu à bout des analphabètes, pour multiplier les illettrés.
Les conservateurs actuels ne sont que des libéraux malmenés par la démocratie
Nicolas Gomez Davila (Escolios a un texto implicito) Les horreurs de la démocratie. Trad. Michel Bibard. Anatolia/Editions du Rocher, 2003.
Printemps dans la Cordillère des Andes. Conférence de Pierre-Olivier Combelles. Société Nationale d'Horticulture de France (Paris), mardi 6 octobre 2009
Le programme des conférences.
Les conférences ont lieu au :
Siège de la SNHF, à partir de 19h30.
84 rue de grenelle, 75007 PARIS.
Métro "Rue du Bac"
Programme des conférences pour l'année 2008
ATTENTION aussi à votre stationnement, la police parisienne semble assez zélée ces derniers temps,
ne prenez pas le risque de faire enlever votre véhicule par la fourrière!
|12 février||Macrophotos d'Asclepiadaceae et autres succulentes||Marc Beugin|
|11 mars||Les succulentes d'Afrique du sud(Eastern Cape et petit Karoo)||Pierre Fontaine|
La succulence et autres adaptations à la sécheresse
|13 mai||Flore succulente des îles de la Baja California||Norbert Rebmann|
|10 juin||Voyage botanique dans le nord de Madagascar||Lucile Allorge|
|09 septembre||Les succulentes du Perou: Le Rio Maranon d'El Chagual à Rentama||Philippe Corman|
|07 octobre||Les succulentes du nord-ouest de l'Argentine||Norbert Rebmann|
|18 novembre||Adromiscus et Tylecodons (avec distribution de plantes)||Jean Delefosse|
|09 décembre||La bibliothèque de la SNHF, centre de ressources sur les plantes et succulentes||Sophie Berton|
Programme des conférences pour l'année 2009
ATTENTION aussi à votre stationnement, la police parisienne semble assez zélée ces derniers temps,
ne prenez pas le risque de faire enlever votre véhicule par la fourrière!
|Mardi 06 janvier||Galette des rois... et champagne, Venez tester vos connaissances sur les plantes succulentes, organisation d'un jeu ; une vingtaine de plantes à gagner pour les dix meilleures réponses et pour les rois et reines. .||Présentation de livres par Claude Lesénécal|
|Mardi 10 février||Tournée chez les producteurs collectionneurs de succulentes d'Allemagne et du Bénélux||Jean-Marc Veillat|
|Mardi 10 mars||
Plantes succulentes, biodiversité et conservation,
Jean-marie Solichon, Directeur du jardin exotique de Monaco
|Jeudi 02 avril||Rétrospective de 50 ans de la vie d'un collectionneur,||Marc Beugin|
|12 mai||Plantes succulentes d'Ethiopie par,||Norbert Rebmann, professeur Paris 12|
|09 juin||Régions peu connues de Madagascar, Makay et Tsingy,||Lucile Allorge, Maître de conférence, Muséum National d'Histoire Nature|
|Mardi 08 septembre||
Quatre voyages en Atacama à la rencontre des Copiapoa (Chili)
Denis Diagre, Nationale Plantentuin van België.
|Mardi 06 octobre||Printemps dans la Cordillère des Andes,||Pierre-Olivier Combelles|
|Mardi 10 novembre||A la découverte des saguaros et barrel cactus d'Arizona||Norbert Rebmann|
|Mardi 15 decembre||Les Frailea, quelques repères dans une jungle de noms,||Aymeric de Barmon|