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Le Rouge et le Blanc, ou le Fil d'Ariane d'un voyageur naturaliste

Nicolás Gómez Dávila: sept maximes sur le gauchisme

19 Mars 2013 , Rédigé par Béthune

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Le gauchiste ne vilipende que des simulacres de pouvoir.

 

Le gauchiste évite avec un tact méticuleux de marcher sur les pieds des véritables puissants.

 

Le gauchisme est la bannière sous laquelle la mentalité bourgeoise du XIXe maintient son pouvoir au XXe.

 

La gauche et la droite ont signé, contre le réactionnaire, un pacte secret d'agression perpétuelle.

 

La concussion démocratique est inexcusable parce qu'elle est hypocrite, sournoise, honteuse. J'aime mieux Vaux-le-Vicomte que les comptes bancaires en Suisse des ministres démocratiques.

 

Toute rébellion contre l'ordre de l'homme est noble, tant qu'elle ne masque pas une rébellion contre l'ordre du monde.

 

L'anarchie menaçant une société qui s'avilit n'est pas un châtiment, mais un remède.

 

Nicolás Gómez Dávila

(Cajicá, Colombie, le 18 mai 1913 - Bogotá, le 17 mai 1994)

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Pourquoi dénucléariser ? (Général Bernard Norlain)

16 Mars 2013 , Rédigé par Béthune

 

Le général d'aviation Bernard Norlain explique les raisons de la dénucléarisation. Ce sont celles d'un sage et d'un expert. Elles n'ont rien à voir, évidemment, avec le pacifisme ou le désarmement unilatéral.


Vidéo de la conférence sur Dailymotion: link


Biographie du général Bernard Norlain (Wikipedia): link

Questions au général Bernard Norlain, Président du Comité d’Études de la Défense Nationale et Directeur de la Revue Défense Nationale. Blog de Jean-Marie Collin: link

Le général Norlain remet en cause la force de dissuasion nucléaire: (icietmaintenant.fr): link

Le général Bernard Norlain parle des livres de Peter Dale Scott:

La route vers le Nouveau Désordre Mondial. ReOpen911: link 

La machine de guerre américaine: la politique profonde, la CIA, la drogue, l'Afghanistan. Editions Demi-Lune: link. Recension parue à l'origine dans le N°757 (Février 2013) de la Revue Défense Nationale.

Bernard Norlain relève plusieurs écueils chez Peter Dale Scott, particulièrement dans son dernier ouvrage, La Machine de guerre américaine, où il prône la dépénalisation de la drogue comme remède à la situation. Thèse et politique avec lesquelles Norlain est en total désaccord. 

Et puis, surtout, n'oublions pas, le général Norlain a préfacé le Rapport Cometa link

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La transgression sémantique et politique du "mariage" homosexuel

13 Mars 2013 , Rédigé par Béthune

 

 


 

Dimanche 24 mars 2012. Après l'adoption de la loi pour le mariage homosexuel par l'Assemblée nationale, une deuxième manifestation gigantesque de Français venus de tout le pays défile à Paris pour protester.

 

Le "mariage" homosexuel est une transgression sémantique et politique. Sémantique parce que le terme mariage désigne l'union religieuse et/ou civile d'un homme et d'une femme, c'est-à-dire de deux personnes de sexes différents.

Lorsqu'un Gouvernement transgresse le sens des mots, surtout un mot aussi fondamental que le mot "mariage", car c'est sur lui que repose toute la société, c'est la politique entière qui est transgressée: la politique intérieure, la politique extérieure et, comme conséquence, la vie des hommes et la Nature elle-même, sur laquelle les hommes agissent par leurs activités.

Les Chinois avaient déjà défini le lien entre la sémantique et la politique, affirmant que le rôle de l'Etat est de veiller au sens correct des mots et à l'ordre du Monde:


      Le premier devoir du chef est de fournir aux hommes les emblèmes qui permettent de domestiquer la Nature, parce qu'ils signalent, pour chacun des êtres, sa personnalité, ainsi que sa place et son rang dans le Monde. Aux premiers jours de la civilisation chinoise, Houang-ti acquit la gloire d'un héros fondateur, car il prit soin de donner à toutes choses une désignation (ming) correcte (tcheng), ceci "afin d'éclairer le peuple sur les ressources utilisables","rendre les désinations correctes (tcheng-ming)" est, en effet, la première des obligations gouvernementales. Le Prince a pour mission de mettre de l'ordre tout ensemble dans les choses et les actions: il ajuste les actions aux choses. Il y parvient d'emblée en fixant les dénominations (ming: la prononciation des mots) et les signes d'écriture (ming: les caractères). 

Marcel Granet: La pensée chinoise.


En promouvant et en cherchant à légaliser le mariage homosexuel (Projet de loi ouvrant le mariage aux couples de personnes de même sexe , n° 344, déposé le 7 novembre 2012 (mis en ligne le 7 novembre 2012 à 17 heures 15) et renvoyé à la commission des lois constitutionnelles, de la législation et de l'administration générale de la république : link), le Gouvernement et l'Assemblée Nationale de la France ont donc commis l'acte le plus grave qui soit. 

La ratification du traité de Lisbonne, qui avait été refusée par référendum du peuple français, avait déjà ôté toute légitimité au Gouvernement et à l'Assemblée nationale, qui ont cessé de représenter la France et le peuple français. 

La question est de savoir pour quel Nouveau Désordre Mondial et quels lobbies, personnes et intérêts particuliers ils agissent et légifèrent. Car "le critère du politique, c'est la définition de l'ennemi" (Carl Schmitt).

Béthune


Sur le même sujet et sur le même blog: L'infamie du projet de loi "Mariage et adoption pour tous": link

Egalement:

 

L'Union Nationale des Écrivains de France (UNIEF) / CDV communique le texte directeur de sa Conférence de Presse du 16 mars 2013, 11 h, donnée sur le Pont des Arts de Paris, devant le Palais Mazarin, siège de l'Institut de France, pour porter à la connaissance du public la réponse de l'Académie Française à sa saisine lui demandant, au nom de sa mission séculaire de défense de la langue française, de tout mettre en œuvre pour faire opposition à l'adoption de la fausse définition du mariage de l'art 1. du projet de loi Taubira-Hollande, violant le principe même de clarté non-contradictoire de la langue française, la raison d'être de l'Académie, sa souveraineté universelle en matière de langue, et l'essence même de la Démocratie. link

 

 

 

Wou wei: Non-agir (c'est-à-dire ne rien faire de contraire à la Nature)

Devise écrite sur le trône des empereurs de Chine


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Japan is one of the most densely forested countries on Earth (Kevin Short)

10 Mars 2013 , Rédigé par Béthune

Un bois sacré au Japon. Source: greenshinto.com link

 

Kevin Short / Daily Yomiuri Columnist

link

 

Japan is certainly a land of trees and forests. Even today, 68.5 percent of the national land is covered with forest. This figure is third behind Finland (72.9 percent) and Sweden (68.7 percent), and over twice the world average of 31 percent. An estimated 1,000 species of woody plants live in Japanese forests, which is about the same as the figure for all of North America.

One reason for the amazing diversity of Japanese trees can be found in geologic history. The Japanese islands were almost completely free of ice during the last glacial period. In contrast, until 10,000 years ago much of northern and western Europe was covered by glaciers up to a kilometer thick.

Geographical conditions also help support sylvan biodiversity. With warm oceans currents flowing on both sides, the Japanese archipelago is blessed with a mild, wet climate that is ideal for tree growth and forest development. In addition, the islands stretch a long way in the north-south direction, and climatic zones range from subtropical in the Ryukyu Islands to subarctic in parts of Hokkaido.

Botanists understand and document plant diversity using a formal taxonomic system. Trees are first divided into two major groups, gymnosperms and angiosperms, based on the type of flower and fruit. Gymnosperms include all the trees we normally call conifers, and angiosperms the ones we think of as broad-leaves. Some trees, such as the ginkgo, however, have wide leaves but are actually gymnosperms.

The vast majority of Japan's native tree species are broad-leaves, and most of the nation's natural forests are dominated by broad-leaves. The general idea is that angiosperms, which sport a more advanced flower structure, enjoy a competitive advantage over gymnosperms. All else being equal, angiosperms will thus tend to monopolize favorable environments, leaving the gymnosperms to get by in marginal habitats such as deeply shaded valleys and exposed ridges.

But today, as anyone traveling around Japan can verify at a glance, the hills and lower mountainsides in most areas of the country are totally dominated by conifers. In fact, a full 40 percent of the nation's forests are pure stands of conifers. These are not natural forests at all, but commercial timber plantations.

Major Japanese timber trees include sugi cryptomeria (Cryptomeria japonica), hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa), sawara cypress (C. pisifera) and karamatsu larch (Laris leptolepis). Of these, the cryptomeria is by far and away the most commonly planted. This is an endemic Japanese species, distributed from northern Honshu south to Yakushima Island in Kagoshima Prefecture. Typical natural habitat is in deep muddy soils near the bottom of steep ravines, especially on shaded north-facing slopes.

Sugi is a close relative of the coast redwoods and giant sequoias of California. Although not quite as tall and fat as these behemoths, large specimens can live for over 1,000 years, and reach heights of up to 50 meters. In crowded woods, the trees grow straight and true. The Japanese name sugi is thought to be derived from massugu-ki, or "perfectly straight tree."

The aromatic wood of the cryptomeria is soft and easily worked, perfect for cutting into the straight boards and columns used in building. The Japanese have prized this tree highly since ancient times. According to classic mythology, the great kami deity Susano created the first sugi by plucking hairs from his beard and scattering them over the islands.

Sugi is what botanists call a monoecious species. This means that the male and female flowers bloom separately, but each individual tree has both types. The light brown conelike male flowers occur in clusters at the tips of some branches. When daytime temperatures begin climbing up into the mid-teens, these cones split open to release their loads of miniscule feather-light pollen grains.

The inconspicuous female flowers form at the tips of separate branches. When pollinated these structures develop into spiky cones that ripen and release their seeds in late autumn and early winter. The sugi flowers rely solely on the wind to carry their pollen from tree to tree. The pollen grains are produced in mind-boggling quantities, and are able to float for dozens or even hundreds of kilometers on the spring breezes.

As noted earlier, single-species commercial conifer plantations account for 40 percent of the total forested area nationwide. In many prefectures, however, this figure is well over 60 percent; it's even higher on hills and lower mountainsides surrounding the major cities. In late February and early March, immense clouds of yellow-green sugi pollen dust float down onto the urban areas, like some amorphous monster out of a kaiju science fiction movie. The number of people suffering from sugi pollen allergy is estimated at over 20 million.

Most of these sugi plantations were established in the years following the Pacific War, when demand for lumber for rebuilding the destroyed towns and cities was high. Entire hillsides and even watersheds were stripped bare of their diverse natural broad-leaved forests, and completely replanted in tight rows of sugi. Several decades later, however, tariff reductions made cheap imported lumber products widely available, and the price of sugi wood dropped dramatically. As a result, many plantations have since been abandoned as commercially unworkable.

Cryptomeria is a truly magnificent tree, and properly thinned and managed sugi plantations form a valuable wildlife habitat of their own. The sheer extent of the plantations, however, has placed Japan's magnificent natural broad-leaved trees and forest ecosystems in grave danger of extinction.

 

 

Short is a naturalist and cultural anthropology professor at Tokyo University of Information Sciences.

 

(Feb. 28, 2013)

 

 

 

Un Ginkgo biloba sacré. Source: greenshinto.com link

Les arbres sacrés sont nommés shimboku au Japon. Ils abritent un esprit, une divinité. Pour les distinguer, on les entoure d'une corde de paille de riz (shimenawa).


Lire à ce sujet le remarquable article: Le bois sacré au Japon link sur le site krapooarboricole.wordpress.com.

 

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Josquin des Prez: O Virgo prudentissima

8 Mars 2013 , Rédigé par Béthune

 

 

 

 

Capella Sancti Michaëlis

link

 

Perhaps a native of the Vermandois region of Picardy, he was a singer at Milan Cathedral in 1459, remaining there until December 1472. By July 1474 he was one of the 'cantori di capella' in the chapel of Galeazzo Maria Sforza. Between 1476 and 1504 he passed into the service of Cardinal Ascanio Sforza, whom he probably accompanied in Rome in 1484. His name first appears among the papal chapel choir in 1486 and recurs sporadically; he had left the choir by 1501. In this Italian period Josquin reached artistic maturity.

He then went to France (he may also have done so while at the papal chapel) and probably served Louis XII's court. Although he may have had connections with the Ferrara court (through the Sforzas) in the 1480s and 1490s, no formal relationship with the court is known before 1503 when, for a year, he was maestro di cappella there and the highest-paid singer in the chapel's history. There he probably wrote primarily masses and motets. An outbreak of plague in 1503 forced the court to leave Ferrara (Josquin's place was taken by Obrecht, who fell victim in 1505). He was in the north again, at Notre Dame at Condé, in 1504; he may have been connected with Margaret of Austria's court, 1508-11. He died in 1521. Several portraits survive, one attributed to Leonardo da Vinci.

Josquin's works gradually became known throughout western Europe and were regarded as models by many composers and theorists. Petrucci's three books of his masses (1502-14) reflect contemporary esteem, as does Attaingnant's collection of his chansons (1550). Several laments were written on his death (including Gombert's elegy Musae Jovis), and as late as 1554 Jacquet of Mantua paid him tribute in a motet. He was praised by 16th-century literary figures (including Castiglione and Rabelais) and was Martin Luther's favourite composer.

Josquin was the greatest composer of the high Renaissance, the most varied in invention and the most profound in expression. Much of his music cannot be dated. Generally, however, his first period (up to circa 1485) is characterized by abstract, melismatic counterpoint in the manner of Ockeghem and by tenuous relationships between words and music. The middle period (to circa 1505) saw the development and perfection of the technique of pervasive imitation based on word-generated motifs. This style has been seen as a synthesis of two traditions: the northem polyphony of Dufay, Busnois and Ockeghem, in which he presumably had his earliest training, and the more chordal, harmonically orientated practice of Italy. In the final period the relationship between word and note becomes even closer and there is increasing emphasis on declamation and rhetorical expression within a style of the utmost economy. 

His many motets span all three periods. One of the earliest, the four-part Victimae paschali laudes (1502), exemplifies his early style, with its dense texture, lack of imitation, patches of stagnant rhythm and rudimentary treatment of dissonance. Greater maturity is shown in Planxit autem David, in which homophonic and freely imitative passages alternate, and in Absalon, fili mi, with its flexible combination of textures. His later motets, such as In principio erat verbum, combine motivic intensity and melodic succinctness with formal clarity; they are either freely composed, four-part settings of biblical texts, or large-scale cantus firmus pieces. Transparent textures and duet writing are common.

Josquin's 18 complete masses combine elements of cantus firmus, parody and paraphrase techniques. One of the earliest, L'ami Baudichon, is a cantus firmus mass on a simple dance formula; the simplicity of melody and rhythm and the clarity of harmony and texture recall the Burgundian style of the 1450s and 1460s. Fortuna desperata, on the other hand, is an early example of parody. Canonic writing and ostinato hgures are features. His last great masses, notably the Missa de beata virgine and the Missa 'Pange lingua' were preceded by works in which every resource is deployed with bravura.

Josquin's secular music comprises three settings of Italian texts and numerous chansons. One of the earliest, Cela sans plus, typifies his observance of the formes fixes and the influences of the Burgundian style of Busnois and Ockeghem. Later works, such as Mille regretz, are less canonic, the clear articulation of line and points of imitation achieved by a carefull balanced hierarchy of cadences. Some, like Si j'ay perdu mon ami, look forward to the popular 'Parisian' chanson of Janequin.

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Ezra Pound: Par Usura (Canto XLV)

8 Mars 2013 , Rédigé par Béthune

Duccio: l'Annonciation

 

 

Par Usura

 

Par usura n'ont les hommes maison de pierre saine

blocs lisses finement taillés scellés pour que

la frise couvre leur surface

par usura

n'ont les hommes paradis peint au mur de leurs églises

*harpe et luth*

où la vierge fait accueil au message

où le halo rayonne en entailles

par usura

n'aura Gonzague d'héritier concubine

n'aura de portrait peint pour durer orner la vie

mais le tableau fait pour vendre vendre vite

par usura péché contre nature

sera ton pain aussi sec que papier

sans blé de la montagne farine pure

par usura la ligne s'épaissit

par usura n'est plus de claire démarcation

les hommes n'ont plus de site pour leurs demeures.

Et le tailleur est privé de sa pierre

le tisserand de son métier

PAR USURA

la laine déserte les marchés

le troupeau perte pure par usura.

Usura est murène, usura

use l'iguille aux doigts de la couseuse

suspend l'adresse de la fileuse. Pietro Lombardo

n'est pas fils d'usura

n'est pas fils d'usura

n'est pas fils d'usura Duccio

ni Pier della Francesca; ni Zuan Bellin'

ni le tableau "La Calunnia".

N'est pas oeuvre d'usura Angelico; ni Ambrogio Praedis

ni l'église de pierre signature d'Adamo me fecit

Ni par usura St Trophime

Ni par usura Saint Hilaire

Usura rouille le ciseau

Rouille l'art l'artiste

Rogne fil sur le métier

Nul n'entrecroise l'or sur son modèle;

L'azur se chancre par usura; le cramoisi s'éraille

L'émeraude cherche son Memling

Usura assassine l'enfant au sein

Entrave la cour du jouvenceau

Paralyse la couche oppose

le jeune époux son épousée

              CONTRA NATURAM

Ils ont mené des putains à Eleusis

Les cadavres banquettent

au signal d'usura

 

N.B. Usure: Loyer sur le pouvoir d'achat, imposé sans égard à la production; souvent même sans égard aux possibilités de production. (D'où la faillite de la banque Médicis.)


Ezra Pound, Les Cantos (1934), Flammarion, 2002.

 

 


 
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Zhuangzi: the fasting of the mind, le jeûne de l'esprit (Carême 2013)

7 Mars 2013 , Rédigé par Béthune

Yen Hui said, "I have nothing more to offer. May I ask the proper way?"

"You must fast!" said Confucius. "I will tell you what that means. Do you think it is easy to do anything while you have [a mind]? If you do, Bright Heaven will not sanction you."

Yen Hui said, "My family is poor. I haven't drunk wine or eaten any strong foods for several months. So can I be considered as having fasted?"

"That is the fasting one does before a sacrifice, not the fasting of the mind."

"May- I ask what the fasting of the mind is?"

Confucius said, "Make your will one! Don't listen with your ears, listen with your mind. No, don't listen with your mind, but listen with your spirit. Listening stops with the ears, the mind stops with recognition, but spirit is empty- and waits on all things. The Way gathers in emptiness alone. Emptiness is the fasting of the mind."

Yen Hui said, "Before I heard this, I was certain that I was Hui. But now that I have heard it, there is no more Hui. Can this be called emptiness?"

"That's all there is to it," said Confucius. "Now I will tell you. You may go and play in his bird cage, but never be moved by fame. If he listens, then sing; if not, keep still. Have no gate, no opening, but make oneness your house and live with what cannot be avoided. Then you will be close to success.

"It is easy to keep from walking; the hard thing is to walk without touching the ground. It is easy to cheat when you work for men, but hard to cheat when you work for Heaven. You have heard of flying with wings, but you have never heard of flying without wings. You have heard of the knowledge that knows, but you have never heard of the knowledge that does not know. Look into that closed room, the empty chamber where brightness is born! Fortune and blessing gather where there is stillness. But if you do not keep still - this is what is called sitting but racing around. Let your ears and eyes communicate with what is inside, and put mind and knowledge on the outside. Then even gods and spirits will come to dwell, not to speak of men! This is the changing of the ten thousand things, the bond of Yu and Shun, the constant practice of Fu Hsi and Chi Ch'u. How much more should it be a rule for lesser men!"

Zhuangzi, trad. Watson Burton, Chap. IV, 4-7.

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When the world has the Way, the sage succeeds; when the world is without the Way, the sage survives (Chuang Tzu)

6 Mars 2013 , Rédigé par Béthune

When Confucius visited Ch'u, Chieh Yu, the madman of Ch'u, wandered by his gate crying, "Phoenix, phoenix, how his virtue failed! The future you cannot wait for; the past you cannot pursue. When the world has the Way, the sage succeeds; when the world is without the Way, the sage survives. In times like the present, we do well to escape penalty. Good fortune is light as a feather, but nobody knows how to hold it up. Misfortune is heavy as the earth, but nobody knows how to stay out of its way. Leave off, leave off - this teaching men virtue! Dangerous, dangerous - to mark off the ground and run! Fool, fool - don't spoil my walking! I walk a crooked way - don't step on my feet. The mountain trees do themselves harm; the grease in the torch burns itself up. The cinnamon can be eaten and so it gets cut down; the lacquer tree can be used and so it gets hacked apart. All men know the use of the useful, but nobody knows the use of the useless!"

The Complete Works of Chuang Tzu, translated by Burton Watson. Chap.IV, 18.

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Le rôle des arbres géants dans la nature

4 Mars 2013 , Rédigé par Béthune

Châtaignier du Pinet d'Uriage (Isère). Photo extraite du site Krapo arboricole: link


En reparcourant le site passionnant d'Alain Sennepin, spécialiste du tigre et des félins eurasiatiques, nous avons trouvé cet article qui nous rappelle le rôle essentiel des arbres géants dans la nature: abriter et nourrir des quantités d'espèces.


http://europe-tigre.over-blog.com/70-index.html

 link


VOIR AUSSI LA PERTE INCALCULABLE DÛE AU DECLIN DES ARBRES GEANTS EUX MÊMES (Tehran Times du 7 Décembre).

Big, old trees are in decline throughout the world, which spells trouble for the forests in which they play such an important role, a new study finds.

These elders of the forest do many things that smaller, younger trees cannot; for example, providing homes for many types of animals, providing space for other plants to grow in tropical rainforests and producing large amounts of seeds that serve as food for other animals and replenish tree populations, according to the study, published on December 6 in the journal Science.

Old trees also store an enormous amount of carbon and continue to sequester it as they grow, even in their old age, said study co-author David Lindenmayer, a researcher at Australian National University.

One study published in PLoS ONE in May found that although big trees, with a diameter of more than 3 feet (1 meter) at chest height, made up only 1 percent of trees in a study plot in California's Yosemite National Park, they accounted for 50 percent of the area's biomass.

Another study found that huge mountain ash trees in southern Australia and Tasmania provide homes for more than 40 species of animals, which live in cavities in the old trees, Lindenmayer said. Smaller trees provide homes for far fewer animals.

The decline in these trees is happening globally. "Large old trees are declining rapidly in all kinds of ecosystems worldwide — forests, rainforests, boreal forests, woodlands, agricultural areas, cities and savannahs," Lindenmayer told OurAmazingPlanet.

While the loss of these sylvan elders is sometimes obvious, in the case of forest fires or clear-cutting, their disappearance is usually less apparent, said Nate Stephenson, an ecologist with the Western Ecological Research Center in Three Rivers, Calif.

 

"Losses of big, old trees can take place over decades, generally too slowly for people to notice, become alarmed about and take actions to correct," said Stephenson, who wasn't involved in the Science study.

The "next generation may not know that big old trees were once common in the nearby forest."

Why the decline?

Big trees are in decline for a number of reasons, including logging and clearing of land for agriculture, introduction of non-native insects or pathogens (an example being chestnut blight), past management practices (for example, fire exclusion that has led to denser forests, which can be more vulnerable to insect outbreaks and severe fires), air pollution and climatic changes, Stephenson said.

The decline in any one place, though, is specific to the area, Lindenmayer said. "It might be elephants plus fire plus fungi in [South Africa's] Kruger National Park, versus fire plus logging plus climate change in the wet forests of Victoria," in Australia, he said. "But the problem manifests in broadly the same way in all systems: rapid loss of existing large old trees and often a failure to recruit new big trees, leading to a massive vacuum."

Though almost none of the "big tree" species are in danger of going extinct, the largest individuals could become very rare, said James Lutz, a researcher at the University of Washington, who wasn't involved in the study.

To prevent losing more forest giants, people need to protect individual large trees and places where they are more likely to grow, Lindenmayer said. It's also important that land managers realize the importance of big old trees. "Many managers have no idea about this," he said.

"We all know that big animals like whales, tigers are in trouble — now we have seen that big trees are too," he said. The problem is these trees take centuries to get big, he said.

Big trees are important to people, as well, Lutz said. "They are majestic, though they were once as all the other saplings," he said. "By preserving them, we preserve our heritage and our hope and maybe a bit of ourselves as well."

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La société chinoise est cosmique (Marcel Granet)

1 Mars 2013 , Rédigé par Béthune

La représentation que les Chinois se font de l'Univers repose sur une théorie du microcosme. Celle-ci se rattache aux premiers essais de classification de la pensée chinoise. Elle dérive d'une croyance extrêmement tenace: l'Homme et la Nature ne forment pas deux règnes séparés, mais une société unique. Tel est le principe des diverses techniques qui réglementent les attitudes humaines. C'est grâce à une participation active des humains et par l'effet d'une sorte de discipline civilisatrice que se réalise l'Ordre universel. A la place d'une Science ayant pour objet la connaissance du Monde, les Chinois ont conçu une Etiquette de la vie qu'ils supposent assez efficace pour instaurer un ordre total.

Marcel Granet. La pensée chinoise (1934). Albin Michel, 1999.

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